What is a global minimum tax and how could it affect companies, countries?


Treasury Secretary Janet Yellen has thrown the burden of the U.S. authorities behind a push for a global company minimum tax charge, presumably carving a path to a long-sought deal updating worldwide tax guidelines for the primary time in a technology.

Yellen mentioned earlier this month that she is working with G20 nations to agree on a global minimum, which she mentioned could assist finish a “30-year race to the bottom on corporate tax rates.”


Major economies are aiming to discourage multinational firms from shifting earnings – and tax revenues – to low-tax nations no matter the place their gross sales are made. Increasingly, revenue from intangible sources corresponding to drug patents, software program and royalties on mental property has migrated to those jurisdictions, permitting firms to keep away from paying increased taxes of their conventional house nations.

With a broadly agreed global minimum tax, the Biden administration hopes to scale back such tax base erosion with out placing American corporations at a monetary drawback, permitting them to compete on innovation, infrastructure and different attributes.

The Trump administration took a first stab at capturing revenues misplaced to tax havens with a U.S. company offshore minimum tax in 2017. The “Global Intangible Low-Taxed Income,” or GILTI, tax charge was solely 10.5% – half the home company tax charge.


The Paris-based Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development has been coordinating tax negotiations amongst 140 nations for years on two main efforts: setting guidelines for taxing cross-border digital companies and curbing tax base erosion, with a global company minimum tax a part of the latter.

The OECD and G20 nations goal to succeed in consensus on each fronts by mid-year, however the talks on a global company minimum are technically easier and politically much less contentious.

Since the talks are consensus primarily based, nations are anticipated to associate with settlement irrespective of how unpalatable it could also be for some low tax nations.

The minimum tax is anticipated to make up the majority of the $50 billion-$80 billion in additional company tax that the OECD estimates firms will find yourself paying globally if offers on each efforts are enacted.


The global minimum tax charge would apply to firms’ abroad earnings. Therefore, if nations agree on a global minimum, governments could nonetheless set no matter native company tax charge they need.

But if firms pay decrease charges in a specific nation, their house governments could “top-up” their taxes to the agreed minimum charge, eliminating the benefit of shifting earnings to a tax haven.

The Biden administration has mentioned it needs to disclaim exemptions for taxes paid to nations that do not conform to a minimum charge.

The OECD mentioned final month that governments broadly agreed already on the essential design of the minimum tax though the speed stays to be agreed. International tax specialists say that is the thorniest challenge.

Other objects nonetheless to be negotiated embody whether or not industries like funding funds and actual property funding trusts needs to be lined, when to use the brand new charge and making certain it is suitable with the 2017 U.S. tax reforms geared toward deterring tax-base erosion.


The Biden administration needs to boost the U.S. company tax charge to twenty-eight%, so it has proposed a global minimum of 21% – double the speed on the present GILTI tax. It additionally needs the minimum to use to U.S. firms irrespective of the place the taxable revenue is earned.

That proposal is far above the 12.5% minimum tax that had beforehand been mentioned in OECD talks – a degree that occurs to match Ireland’s company tax charge.

The Irish economic system has boomed in recent times from the inflow of billions of {dollars} in funding from international multinationals, so Dublin, which has resisted European Union makes an attempt to harmonize its tax guidelines for greater than a decade, is unlikely to simply accept a increased minimum charge with out a battle.

However, the battle for Ireland and different low-tax nations is much less prone to be about making an attempt to scupper the general talks and extra about constructing assist for a minimum charge as shut as doable to its 12.5%.




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