Indigenous individuals in what’s now the Great Bear Rainforest of western Canada inform a narrative in regards to the bears there. When the Raven — or Wee’get — created the world, he additionally created the Ice Age. When the ice lastly started to soften, Raven needed to do one thing to remind himself of that point. As he flew over an island close to the Great Bear Rainforest, Raven noticed a black bear. He determined to flip each tenth black bear white. He set the white bears on what’s now Princess Royal Island, the place they’d be protected, to remind Raven endlessly of when the world was chilly.
The story has foundation in fact. White bears might be discovered on Princess Royal and different close by islands. They should not polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Also referred to as the Kermode bear, they’re a subspecies of black bears that has white fur (Ursus americanus kermodei). The First Nations individuals of Canada name them spirit bears. Scientists at the moment are working with Indigenous individuals residing within the Great Bear Rainforest to higher perceive these particular bears.
Douglass Neasloss first heard Raven story from somebody within the Gitga’at First Nation in British Columbia, Canada. Neasloss is a member of the close by Kitasoo/Xai’xais (“KIT-ah-soo/Shah-Shah”) First Nation, additionally in British Columbia. He started working as a Great Bear Rainforest tour information again in 1999. He confirmed individuals loads of black bears. All have been black. He was skeptical in regards to the story that some have been white. “I grew up in this community,” he remembers. “I thought there was no such thing.”
Then, a Japanese movie crew employed him to discover a spirit bear. “I thought [the director] was pulling my leg,” Neasloss says. “I went for a walk … and this spirit bear walks right in front of me…. He’s got a salmon in his mouth…. And the sun comes out, peeking through the trees, and lights up his face.”
Neasloss is now a stewardship director for the Kitasoo/Xai’xais First Nation. And his Kitasoo/Xai’xais title is now Nuq’vas glaw — white bear. His job is to help animals and individuals dwell collectively, particularly individuals and bears. He additionally works with scientists learning spirit bears and salmon. “We have, you know, 10,000-plus years of living in this area,” he notes. “You’d think we know something about the wildlife, how to coexist with one another here.”
Spirit bear science
To help them higher perceive the bears and salmon of their group, the Kitasoo/Xai’ais employed Christina Service. She’s a wildlife biologist and the primary scientist this First Nation had ever employed. Often, her analysis is impressed by tales the First Nations inform or information they have already got. That consists of their information of spirit bears.
Service and Neasloss needed to work out what number of bears have been white. Their colour is due to a single gene — a bit of DNA — with directions for white fur. The gene is recessive. Bears inherit a gene for fur colour from every of their dad and mom. Both dad and mom want to go on a replica of the “white fur” gene for a cub to be white. If both mum or dad passes alongside a gene for another fur colour, resembling black or brown, the cub will probably be that colour as a substitute.
If genes for black and white fur are distributed evenly among the many island’s bear inhabitants, about one in of each 4 needs to be white. But if 25 p.c of the bears have been white, the Kitasoo/Xai’xais couldn’t discover them. And many vacationers seek for spirit bears within the Great Bear Rainforest. Knowing how uncommon the bears actually have been may help information how to shield them.
Getting a bear’s DNA just isn’t straightforward. Some scientists go to them in dens to take samples. But bears are crucial in Kitasoo/Xai’xais tradition, and Service and Neasloss needed to make it possible for their analysis didn’t disturb the bears. So they constructed a hair lure with a strip of material soaked in fish guts, peanut butter and bacon. (Bears discover these smells irresistible.) They positioned the pungent material inside a hoop of barbed wire. The wire doesn’t harm the bears, however as they step over it, it snags a small clump of their fur — simply sufficient to get a DNA pattern.
By accumulating hair from everywhere in the islands the place the bears lived, the traps confirmed that spirit bears have been a lot rarer than scientists had assumed. In reality, on Princess Royal Island, solely about one in each 10 is white. Those numbers match nicely with native information. “We were able to look and compare to what the communities knew … based on oral history,” Service says.
The scientists additionally confirmed that solely about half of the areas that have been dwelling to probably the most spirit bears have been protected by the federal government. So to help protect spirit bears, extra land may need to be protected as nicely. Service, Neasloss and their colleagues published their analyses final December in Ecological Solutions and Evidence.
“I really love the research they do because it’s such a close collaboration with the First Nations,” says Natalie Ban. “I think the approach they take is admirable and should be an example for other ecologists and biologists to follow.” Ban is a conservation scientist on the University of Victoria in Canada. She was not concerned within the analysis.
Ban says that whereas the numbers of spirit bears are fascinating, it’s the place they’re that’s most vital. Many spirit bears dwell in unprotected forest. “Those places are potentially subject to logging,” she notes, in addition to different human actions that may hurt the bears’ habitat.
But habitat safety is only a first step, she provides. Protecting these animals, she provides, “ought to involve rethinking how much we extract from the environment.”
And this might additionally help the principle native trade: ecotourism — individuals coming to see the rainforest and its bears. Neasloss hopes that extra science will help profit all the bears. “We have a lot of respect for these bears,” he says. “A long time ago people used to share the same rivers and estuaries with these bears, to share the forest.” That respect means studying about them and preserving them secure — for the bears and the individuals who need to see them. “The bears deserve to be here as much as the people do.”